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LC4 Chaise Longue
LC2 Armchair
Adjustable Table E 1027
S 64 / S 64 N
Offer
S 43 Classic
Offer
Barcelona Chair
Laccio Table
Wassily Chair
LC2 Sofa
LC2 Armchair Gunmetal
Special Edition
WG 24
Kaiser Idell 6631-T Luxus
LC7 Swivel Chair
S 43 F Classic
Offer
S 285
Tube Light
M4R
Nesting Tables
S 33 / S 34
B 9
Adjustable Table E 1027 Replacement Glass
Kaiser Idell 6631-P
Flat Bat Brno Chair
Set B 97 Glass
Kaiser Idell 6556-T
S 32 N / S 64 N Pure Materials
Offer
B 108
Barcelona Stool
Set B 97
Kaiser Idell 6718-W Scissor Lamp
WA 24
WG 25 GL
Kaiser Idell 6631-T Brass
Set B 9
Set B 9 Glass
Replacement Shade for GL/WA Lamps
B3 Wassily Miniature
B 9 Glass
B 97
L25
Special Edition
Spring Balanced Floor Lamp
B 117
B 97 Glass
Wassily Chair Bauhaus Edition
Special Edition
Spring Balanced Table Lamp
Kaiser Idell 6556-F
B 9 Pure Materials
Kaiser Idell 6722-P
D4
MR Coffee Table
Bauhaus Pendant Lamp DMB26
MR 515/516/517
Set B 9 a + b
K831 Pendant Lamp
Barcelona Relax Day Bed
Offer
LUM Pendant Lamp
LC3 Sofa
S 285/1 - S 285/2
S 32 / S 32 N
Offer
LC3 Armchair
S 285/0
LC1
Barcelona Day Bed
LC6 Table
S 1520
S 33 N All Seasons
S 35 N All Seasons
S 34 N All Seasons
B 9d/1
S 32 PV / S 64 PV Pure Materials
Offer
Modular Table Lamp
Petite Coiffeuse
B10/1
S 1521
S 533
WA 23 SW
Occasional Table
LC8 Swivel Stool
LC10-P Table
MR Chaise longue Bauhaus Edition
S 40 Outdoor
S 533 N All Seasons
B 22
S 35 NH All Seasons
MR Chair
S 35 L
K40
B 10
S 35 LH
MR20 Miniature
MR Lounge Chair Bauhaus Edition
Roquebrune
F51 Gropius Armchair
Bauhaus Cradle
Modular Floor Lamp
Nesting Table B 97 Classics in Colour
Bibendum
Stuhl W1 Miniature

Bauhaus - Then and Now

The legendary Bauhaus lamp WG 24 from Wilhelm Wagenfeld


Bauhaus in Weimar and Dessau

From 1919 to 1925 Bauhaus was based in Weimar where it emerged from the merger of the Großherzoglich-Sächsische Kunsthochschule and the Kunstgewerbeschule. Walter Gropius, the initiator and director, established Bauhaus with the intention of creating an institution which would marry art with industry, trade and crafts. In context of the practical training the Bauhaus workshops played a central role and existed as an equal party to the theoretical studies. Despite Gropius's aims Bauhaus didn't start cooperating with industry until 1922, and in 1923 an exhibition under title "Art and technology - A new unit" was staged, in which the Bauhaus furniture, lamps and accessories interspersed easily and openly into the rooms. The resonance of the exhibition was such that it established the international reputation of Bauhaus furniture, buildings and art: a reputation which remains undiminished to this day. In 1925 the right-wing conservative regional government forced the closure of Bauhaus Weimar, leading to the subsequent move to Dessau. In the course of the following seven years the most famous Bauhaus furniture was developed in cooperation with local industrial companies such as Junkers aircraft factory, Waggonfabrik AG and Berlin-Anhaltische Maschinenbau AG. In 1932 more political interference saw Bauhaus relocated to Berlin, before in 1933 it closed its doors for ever.


Modernism

The credo "beauty should be combined with usefulness" became popular during the Enlightenment in the eighteenth century, and a century later the idea that art, crafts and industry should be united was firmly established. One of the leading protagonists being the German architect Gottfried Semper who after visiting the London World Exposition in 1851 wrote that the connection between art and industry can best be established through teaching: a position most popularly realised through the Bauhaus. In terms of objects one of the most important of the period was Chair No. 14 by Michael Thonet, released in 1859 the chair with its reduction, functionality and innovative use of material made it very popular with the coming generation of architects and designers and in many respects served as a model for Bauhaus furniture. The start of the 20th century saw the crystallisation of many of these ideas in the formation of the Deutsche Werkbund - German Federation of Architects and Designers - an organisation to which Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius also belonged.

Walter Gropius' office at Bauhaus Weimar


Bauhaus Dessau

The technical context

During the Bauhaus a number of technical "miracles" appeared which radically altered the everyday social, economic and political realities: express trains, aeroplanes, affordable cars, street lighting, electrical lighting and telephones in the home and all manner of new household machines and appliances. These technical innovations allowed the establishment of an industrial culture, including the mass, series production of furniture, while the new means of communication and the new mobility promoted an unprecedented international dialogue amongst furniture designers.


The origins of Bauhaus furniture

The Dutch architect and furniture designer Mart Stam designed the first cantilevered steel tube chair in 1926, taking up from where the De Stijl movement had begun with steel tube furniture. At Bauhaus, artists, sculptors, architects, designers and craftsmen were able to work together in an unprecedented way, thus further developing the Bauhaus style in various directions. The designs of the Bauhaus design furniture were intended to meet the dual demands functionality as well as those of advanced industrial series production. The Bauhaus theory saw the arts and the architecture as inseparable, and this is reflected in the Bauhaus furniture design classics. Among the most fastidious Bauhaus protagonists was the architect and furniture designer Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Among Mies van der Rohe's most famous furniture design classics is the Barcelona Chair and stool, which he designed for the German pavilion on the occasion of the 1929 World Exposition in Barcelona. The steel frame and the leather-covered and button-seated seat and back cushions characterize this chair as uncompromising, aristocratic and elegant.


Barcelona Day Bed from Knoll International

Adjustable Table E 1027 from Eileen Gray


Bauhaus furniture from Marcel Breuer

The furniture designer Marcel Breuer began his studies at Bauhaus in 1920 and acquired his Master title at the time of Bauhaus's move from Weimar to Dessau in 1925. From the very beginning Breuer was regarded as a pioneer in the innovative use of materials, for all wood and metal. In his text "Metal Furniture and Modern Spatiality" Breuer described the aim with his Bauhaus furniture as being to create objects which stand in space in such a way that they interfere with neither movement nor the view through the room. The famous Laccio Bauhaus tables, designed by Marcel Breuer around 1925, consist of a combination of chrome plated steel tubes and wooden surfaces, and today Knoll International still produce the Laccio Table. The Wassily steel tube armchair was also designed in 1925 and was designed for the Dessau studio apartment of his colleague Wassily Kandinsky, from whom the name for the Bauhaus classic was also derived. In 1928 Breuer added a steel tube chair following the typical Bauhaus design to his portfolio.


Bauhaus classic: Bauhaus Pendant Lamp DMB 26 from Marianne Brandt

Wassily Chair from Marcel Breuer


Style elements in Bauhaus furniture

The Bauhaus furniture designers refrained from using unnecessary decorations and colour, and instead used simple but strikingly chrome plated surfaces complemented by the regular use of black. Steel tubes offering as it does numerous benefits, such as high load bearing capacity, low raw material costs, low weight and good formability, greatly contributed to the resulting exceptional design and ease of transportability. The plywood used for Bauhaus tables and chairs consisted of several thin wood layers glued together, which ensured an ease of moulding. However, the typical curved shapes were also created because the welding work could thus be minimized. The use of glass in table tops formed a direct link to the architecture of the time, which focused on the use of glass and steel in the construction of new buildings. Reduction in Bauhaus design is particularly present in the case of the cantilever chairs, where the traditional 4 leg frame was dispensed with. The combination of tubular steel with a wicker mesh makes Thonet furniture the very epitome of Bauhaus furniture design.


Famous Bauhaus chair: S 43 Classic from Marcel Breuer


100 Years of Bauhaus

On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Bauhaus, numerous theme-specific exhibitions and celebrations will take place in 2019. As part of the "100 Years of Bauhaus" anniversary programme and under the motto "Thinking the World anew", Bauhaus Verbund, together with regional and international partners, is inviting visitors to discover the extensive history of the art school, which still has an impact on living and coexistence in society today.

Thonet S 533

Limited Bauhaus Edition: Thonet S 533 F


More about 'Bauhaus' in our blog

The Early Years. Mart Stam, the Institute and the Collection of Industrial Design at the Werkbundarchiv - Museum der Dinge, Berlin

...Much more, on account of institutions such as, for example, Bauhaus or Burg Giebichenstein Halle and also through the innumerable industrial enterprises based in the region who concerned themselves with contemporary materials, contemporary technology, contemporary realities, et al, early 20th century eastern Germany, was one of the principle European motors in the development of production processes, formal expressions, design positions, etc throughout the first third of the 20th century, and thereby an important centre of the early, early years of industrial design as we understand it today... For shortly after his arrival in Berlin the so-called Formalism Debate erupted, a debate which, as previously discussed in these dispatches, and as ever generalising more than is advisable, saw East Germany's ruling SED position itself in favour of what it considered the continuation of a perceived cultural heritage based on the decorative and the handcrafted rather than the reduced and the industrial, and for all saw the SED position itself firmly against "so-called avant-gardists (expressionism, constructivism, abstract art, Bauhaus style, surrealism, etc...

smow Blog Design Calendar: August 5th 1899 – Happy Birthday Mart Stam!

...In addition, during his time in Berlin Stam became friends with the Russian avant-garde painter and architect El Lissitzky, who at that time was serving as a form of cultural attaché for Russia in the Weimar Republic, and who would become an important influence on Stam's understandings; and also joined the so-called Novembergruppe, a collection of Expressionist/Futurist/Modernist/Functionalist/Dadaist/et al artists and architects, and a connection which saw Stam invited to participate in the International Architecture Exhibition staged as part of the 1923 Bauhaus Ausstellung in Weimar and which saw two projects by the then 24 year old Stam displayed alongside works by German contemporaries such as Erich Mendelsohn, Mies van der Rohe, Adolf Meyer, as well as numerous Dutch contemporaries including Gerrit T... 1924 also seeing Mart Stam along with Hans Schmidt and Emil Roth co-found and co-publish the Neue Bauen orientated magazine ABC - Beiträge zum Bauen, the first in a long list of architecture/interiors/design magazines Stam was to be involved with in the coming decades; a publication which in the course of its four year existence published texts by, and in addition to numerous contributions from its three founders, creatives such as El Lissitzky and Hannes Meyer, the (future) 2nd Bauhaus Director; a publication which devoted itself to the presentation of and discussions on the new understandings of architecture, construction, urban planning, furnishings, society, et al that were developing and evolving at the period; and a publication which in doing so served as an important platform not only for contemporary architecture, but for the protagonists involved...

smow Blog Design Calendar: June 16th 1885 – Happy Birthday Lilly Reich!

...On the one hand antagonistic: not only as two acknowledged and leading proponents and practitioners of Modernism, that most degenerate of arts, but for all in context of Bauhaus: Mies having been Director since 1930, and in 1932 appointing Reich as head of both the Weaving Workshop and the so-called Ausbauabteilung, a combined metal/wood/furniture/interiors department created by Hannes Meyer as part of his reform of the school... Or as Herbert Hirche, who had studied under Mies at Bauhaus and was employed in his Berlin studio, noted: "Mies did nothing without first speaking to Lilly Reich"...

Wilhelm Wagenfeld: Lamps @ the Wilhelm Wagenfeld Haus, Bremen

..."I assure you that you and your work are the model case for what the Bauhaus has been after" wrote Walter Gropius to Wilhelm Wagenfeld in April 1965... Just how Wilhelm Wagenfeld developed that "model case" "after" Bauhaus is explored, at least in terms of one design genre, in that genre for which Wilhelm Wagenfeld is most popularly known as a Bauhaus model, in the exhibition Wilhelm Wagenfeld: Lamps at the Wilhelm Wagenfeld Haus Bremen...

smow Blog Design Calendar: February 24th 1893 – Happy Birthday Christian Dell!

...1 In 1922 Christian Dell retuned to Weimar as head of the metal workshop at Bauhaus, where along with the likes of Marianne Brandt, Wilhelm Wagenfeld and Carl Jacob Jucker he played a key role in developing the Bauhaus understanding of and approach to product and lighting design... When in 1925 Bauhaus was forced to relocate to Dessau Christian Dell chose instead a return to the River Main and the post of head of the metal workshop at the Kunsthochschule Frankfurt; an institution which at that time was being reorganised along much more industrial lines, and which, very much like Bauhaus Dessau, was looking to marry craft and industry...


All 'Bauhaus' Posts