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Adjustable Table E 1027
LC4 Chaise Longue
S 64 / S 64 N
Barcelona Chair
LC2 Armchair
S 43 Classic
S 32 / S 32 N
Laccio Table
S 43 F Classic
Kaiser Idell 6631 Luxus
Offer
WG 24
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Tube Light
B 9
LC2 Sofa
Kaiser Idell 6556-F
S 33 / S 34
Kaiser Idell 6718 Scissor Lamp
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Wassily Chair
Set B 9
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M4R
S 285
WA 24
Adjustable Table E 1027 Replacement Glass
Kaiser Idell 6631-P
WG 25 GL
Set B 97
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B 9 Glass
S 1521
Set B 97 Glass
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S 533
S 1520
Set B 9 Glass
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D4
B 10
B 97
Oblique Nesting Tables K3 A, B, C
Replacement Shade for GL/WA Lamps
S 32 N / S 64 N Pure Materials
Kaiser idell 6556-F - Limited Edition
Special Edition
B 108
B 97 Glass
B10/1
Bauhaus Pendant Lamp DMB26
B 9d/1
Kaiser Idell 6556-T
S 533 F Limited Edition
Special Edition
LC7 Swivel Chair
S 33 N All Seasons
B 9 All Seasons
S 533 N All Seasons
B 97 All Seasons
S 40 Outdoor
S 285/1 - S 285/2
LC3 Sofa
Barcelona Day Bed
B25
LC3 Armchair
LC1
B 117
Barcelona stool
S 35 L
B 9 Pure Materials
LC6 Table
S 285/0
S 34 N All Seasons
B 22
S 32 PV / S 64 PV Pure Materials
Flat Bat Brno Chair
B20
S 35 N All Seasons
B3 Wassily Miniature
K40
Occasional Table
MR Chaise lounge with armrests
MR Chair
LC8 Swivel Stool
LC10-P Table
S 35 NH All Seasons
WA 23 SW
Petite Coiffeuse
D22
S 1522
MR Lounge Chair with armrests
Stuhl W1 Miniature
Bibendum
MR20 Miniature
Set B 97 All Seasons
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Roquebrune
S 35 LH
Set B 9 All Seasons
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F51 Gropius Armchair
Bauhaus Cradle

Bauhaus - Then and Now

Modernism

The credo "beauty should be combined with the usefulness" became popular during the Enlightenment in the eighteenth century, and a century later the idea that art, crafts and industry should be united was firmly established. One of the leading protagonists being the German architect Gottfried Semper who after visiting the London World Exposition in 1851 wrote that the connection between art and industry can best be established through teaching: a position most popularly realised through the Bauhaus. In terms of objects one of the most important of the period was Chair No. 14 by Michael Thonet, released in 1859 the chair with its reduction, functionality and innovative use of material made it very popular with the coming generation of architects and designers and in many respects served as a model for Bauhaus furniture. The start of the 20th century saw the crystallisation of many of these ideas in the formation of the Deutsche Werkbund - German Federation of Architects and Designers - an organisation to which Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius also belonged.

The technical context

During the Bauhaus a number of technical "miracles" appeared which radically altered the everyday social, economic and political realities: express trains, aeroplanes, affordable cars, street lighting, electrical lighting and telephones in the home and all manner of new household machines and appliances. These technical innovations allowed the establishment of an industrial culture, including the mass, series production of furniture, while the new means of communication and the new mobility promoted an unprecedented international dialogue amongst furniture designers.


Bauhaus

From 1919 to 1925 Bauhaus was based in Weimar where it emerged from the merger of the Großherzoglich-Sächsische Kunsthochschule and the Kunstgewerbeschule. Walter Gropius, the initiator and director, established Bauhaus with the intention of creating an institution which would marry art with industry, trade and crafts. In context of the practical training the Bauhaus workshops played a central role and existed as an equal party to the theoretical studies. Despite Gropius's aims Bauhaus didn't start cooperating with industry until 1922, and in 1923 an exhibition under title "Art and technology - A new unit" was staged, in which the Bauhaus furniture, lamps and accessories interspersed easily and openly into the rooms. The resonance of the exhibition was such that it established the international reputation of Bauhaus furniture, buildings and art: a reputation which remains undiminished to this day.

Bauhaus classics from Thonet

Bauhaus furniture from Marcel Breuer

The furniture designer Marcel Breuer began his studies at Bauhaus in 1920 and acquired his Master title at the time of Bauhaus's move from Weimar to Dessau in 1925. From the very beginning Breuer was regarded as a pioneer in the innovative use of materials, for all wood and metal. In his text "Metal Furniture and Modern Spatiality" Breuer described the aim with his Bauhaus furniture as being to create objects which stand in space in such a way that they interfere with neither movement nor the view through the room.

The famous Laccio Bauhaus tables, designed by Marcel Breuer around 1925, consist of a combination of chrome plated steel tubes and wooden surfaces, and today Knoll International still produce the Laccio Table. The Wassily steel tube armchair was also designed in 1925 and was designed for the Dessau studio apartment of his colleague Wassily Kandinsky, from whom the name for the Bauhaus classic was also derived. In 1928 Breuer added a steel tube chair following the typical Bauhaus design to his portfolio.

Laccio coffee table by Marcel Breuer

Bauhaus in Dessau

In 1925 the right-wing conservative regional government forced the closure of Bauhaus Weimar, leading to the subsequent move to Dessau. In the course of the following seven years the most famous Bauhaus furniture was developed in cooperation with local industrial companies such as Junkers aircraft factory, Waggonfabrik AG and Berlin-Anhaltische Maschinenbau AG. In 1932 more political interference saw Bauhaus relocated to Berlin, before in 1933 it closed its doors for ever.

The origins of Bauhaus furniture

The Dutch architect and furniture designer Mart Stam designed the first cantilevered steel tube chair in 1926, taking up from where the De Stijl movement had begun with steel tube furniture. At Bauhaus, artists, sculptors, architects, designers and craftsmen were able to work together in an unprecedented way, thus further developing the Bauhaus style in various directions. The designs of the Bauhaus design furniture were intended to meet the dual demands functionality as well as those of advanced industrial series production. The Bauhaus theory saw the arts and the architecture as inseparable, and this is reflected in the Bauhaus furniture design classics.

Among the most fastidious Bauhaus protagonists was the architect and furniture designer Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Among Mies van der Rohe's most famous furniture design classics is the Barcelona Chair and stool, which he designed for the German pavilion on the occasion of the 1929 World Exposition in Barcelona. The steel frame and the leather-covered and button-seated seat and back cushions characterize this chair as uncompromising, aristocratic and elegant.

Barcelona Chair and lounger from Knoll International

The distinction between Cassina furniture and Bauhaus design

The Cassina LC series of leather & steel tube furniture are, despite what many people assume, not Bauhaus furniture, are however excellent examples of classic minimalist and functional furniture designs.


Style elements in Bauhaus furniture

The Bauhaus furniture designers refrained from using unnecessary decorations and colour, and instead used simple but strikingly chrome plated surfaces complemented by the regular use of black. Steel tubes offering as it does numerous benefits, such as high load bearing capacity, low raw material costs, low weight and good formability, greatly contributed to the resulting exceptional design and ease of transportability. The plywood used for Bauhaus tables and chairs consisted of several thin wood layers glued together, which ensured an ease of moulding. However, the typical curved shapes were also created because the welding work could thus be minimized. The use of glass in table tops formed a direct link to the architecture of the time, which focused on the use of glass and steel in the construction of new buildings. Reduction in Bauhaus design is particularly present in the case of the cantilever chairs, where the traditional 4 leg frame was dispensed with. The combination of tubular steel with a wicker mesh makes Thonet furniture the very epitome of Bauhaus furniture design.

The Bauhaus legacy today

Despite the political contempt for, and the associated premature end of Bauhaus, the ideas and innovations from the Bauhaus era are still alive today and influence architecture, art and furniture design. The most comprehensive collection of works and works from the Bauhaus can be found in the Bauhaus Archive Berlin. Collections of furniture, fabric, metal and ceramics from the Weimar period are exhibited at the Bauhaus Museum Weimar, while Bauhaus Dessau is in many respects just as famous for the school building as it is for the works realised there. Many Bauhaus era furniture designs have now become established Design classics.


More about 'Bauhaus' in our blog

Peter Behrens - Art and Technology @ LVR-Industriemuseum, Oberhausen

...As we never tire of repeating, as the centenary of Bauhaus Weimar approaches it is increasingly important to place that one school in context of its time and place, to explain that it wasn't a "Eureka!... " moment but a consequence of specific developments, and also that the development of the institute over Weimer to Bauhaus Dessau and on to the, more or less theoretical, Bauhaus Berlin and beyond wasn't an internal Bauhaus development but a component of a wider development of understandings of architecture and design, of the relationships between art and technology...

#campustour 2018: Summaery, Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany

...We doubt we will be able to visit the 2019 Summaery exhibition at Bauhaus University Weimar, as we suspect the town will be too full of visitors celebrating the centenary of Bauhaus Weimar... Wrong Bauhaus people...

5 New Architecture & Design Exhibitions for September 2018

...Animals and Contemporary Design opens at Marta Herford Museum für Kunst, Architektur, Design, Goebenstraße 2–10, 32052 Herford on Sunday September 16th and runs until Sunday January 1st "Moving Away: The Internationalist Architect" at the Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Moscow As oft noted in these pages, as we approach 2019 and the centenary of Bauhaus Weimar the number of Bauhaus exhibitions is increasing exponentially... So much so that we fully expect to have at least one Bauhaus themed exhibition in this list for the next 8 or 9 months...

Bauhaus Lab 2018. The Art of Joining: Designing the Universal Connector @ Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau

...In 2018 the Bauhaus Lab reflected on that connector, Konrad Wachsmann and standardised, prefabricated construction systems... The results of those reflections were discussed in a one day symposium, and can be viewed in the exhibition The Art of Joining: Designing the Universal Connector at Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau...

5 New Architecture & Design Exhibitions for June 2018

...Following three years of art studies in Hamburg, Anni Fleischmann enrolled at Bauhaus Weimar in 1922, moving with the institute to Dessau in 1925, where in the same year she married Josef Albers and in 1931 took over leadership of the weaving workshop... And in doing so sounds like providing not only a thorough introduction to one of the few females to establish themselves in their own right in the largely patriarchal world of International Modernism, but also help expand understandings of the reality of Bauhaus as we approach the centenary of the founding of Bauhaus Weimar, and the cliché festival that could become...


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